Smart Meters

The truth about Smart Meters - the good and the bad

Energy supply companies have started installing smart meters for electricity and gas in homes across Great Britain. Between now and 2024, residential and small businesses across England, Scotland and Wales will be offered a smart meter by their energy supplier.

In Northern Ireland the Department for the Economy (DfE) has no plans at present to install smart meters.

A smart meter sends an electronic meter reading to your energy supplier, meaning:

  • they won't need to take a manual meter reading - as the meters send back readings themselves
  • you won't get estimated bills - as actual readings are available
  • it'll be easier to switch energy suppliers - as the reading at changeover is readily available.
  • there should be less arguments - as the readings are reliable and not subject to disagreement.

You'll also get a digital display in your home, helping you to keep track of how much energy you're using and how much it's costing.

You won't have to pay for your smart meter or digital display up front - the cost will be included in everyone's energy bill over the next few years.

A smart meter won't change how you currently pay for your energy bill, e.g. monthly or prepaid. This will still be determined by the product and payment method you choose.

Many people have questions about Smart Meters, this website tries to answer them honestly for electricity and gas meters, thoroughly and without bias. This site does not deal with Smart water meters as our team do not have expertise in that area. (Page updated: 2020-02-10)

Questions & Answers

What is the purpose of this site?
When we looked around at the information available for Smart Meters on the web we were concerned that it was difficult to get an unbiased view one way or the other. This site tries to give that view. (Updated: 2014-12-20)

Supplier says to you that they must fit a Smart Meter - What should you say?
Looking at the install numbers from Elexon, the risk of getting an older SMETS1 meter is low and you are very likely to get the latest SMETS2 meter. So we recommend you say Yes. We still recommend insisting on a SMETS2 meter when ordering and when your installer arrives as:
  1. SMETS2 meters are more secure than SMETS1.
  2. Functions such as prepayment are more reliable across a range of suppliers.
  3. Although 15th March 2019 was the end date for installing SMETS1 meters, this just means that suppliers can't count SMETS1 towards their Ofgem targets. They could still install them if they have stock left over.
  4. Even if your supplier says they are installing SMETS2 only, the installer may have some SMETS1 left in their van to use where they can't get a SMETS2 to work or physically fit.
  5. SMETS2 meters will have a solution for high rise flats and basements where the meters and IHD (in House Display) are far apart. This is known as the alternative HAN solution and should be available at the end of 2021.
(Updated: 2021-03-10)

How has COVID-19 effected smart meter installs?
Smart meter installations are continuing. Meter installers will wear PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) at all times and follow guidance on cleanliness and social distancing.
  • The installer will not shake your hand or accept a cup of tea.
  • The installer will not be able to demonstrate the IHD operation as this involves touching the screen. You will be given operating instructions instead.
  • The installer won't ask you to sign off the installation.
  • It is recommended you open windows to ensure good ventilation.
(Updated: 2020-11-18)

Why is my IHD (smart meter display) showing "waiting for current data"?
This means that the IHD (In Home Display) is no longer talking to the communications hub on the electricity meter. There are various steps to try to correct this:
  1. We suggest you wait 24 hours to see if the device reconnects.
  2. If not move the IHD close to the electricity meter and wait another 24 hours for reconnection.
  3. Try resetting your IHD and wait another 24 hours. There are various methods to reset an IHD depending on the model. Find a guide for your device at
  4. If this does not work then contact your energy supplier who will have to send commands to the devices to re-run the connection process.
(Updated: 2021-01-21)

Why do suppliers keep pushing Smart meters?
It may seem strange why suppliers keep pushing smart meters even though customers can just say no. The reason for this is that suppliers have to tell the regulator Ofgem every year what they will achieve by the end of the year in terms of % of customers with a Smart Meter, and they must not miss this target.
Ofgem will also check that the rate of installation is high enough to cover most customers by June 2025, so suppliers can't get away with just giving a low figure.
If suppliers don't achieve this forecast then they get fined. For example EDF Energy was fined £350k in June 2018 for missing their own forecast target. (Updated: 2021-11-13)

Can I refuse to have a smart meter installed?
You are under no obligation to have a smart meter installed in your home unless your existing meter is faulty or has reached the end of its certified life. If you refuse you can change your mind and accept one later. However, there will come a time when only Smart Meters are available and so if your meter breaks due to a fault it will be replaced by a Smart Meter.
You can discuss any concerns you have about smart meters with your supplier. See our Against page for information on why some people are worried about Smart Meters. (Updated: 2021-05-07)

Could my gas fire be disconnected?
When the installer fits your Smart Electricity and Gas Meters they will look for potential safety issues on your appliances. For example, if it looks like the flue for your gas fire is blocked they will attach a safety warning to it with instructions not to use until a Gas Safe Engineer has checked it out.
All installers do get some level of training on how to spot potential safety issues, but installers are only trained in Smart Meter installation and not other devices, so they are not Gas Safe Engineers.
As part of the installation rules they are required to place a warning notice and, in some cases, cap off anything that looks potentially unsafe and ask you to get it checked properly. It could turn out that there is nothing wrong but this is for your own safety, the policy here is better safe than sorry. (Updated: 2022-01-16)

Are smart meters safe?
Yes. Smart meters are subject to the same safety regulations and testing of any in-home technological devices, including baby monitors and mobile phones. Additionally the meters are secure having a security system developed by industry and government experts including GCHQ's National Cyber Security Centre. A side benefit is that many safety problems are being spotted in peoples homes during installation of the smart meter which would not have been spotted without a visit. (Updated: 2019-10-21)

Can I have my Smart Meter removed?
Once you have a Smart Meter you cannot go back to a Traditional Meter. The stocks of Traditional Meters are nearly gone, and they are not being manufactured or refurbished any more. (Updated: 2022-06-24)

Is my Smart Meter working?
Citizens Advice have developed a tool to tell you what type of smart meter you have in your home and if it's working in smart mode. The tool can also tell you if your meter should work in smart mode after switching supplier. Access the tool here: Citizens Advice Smart Meter Checker. (Updated: 2021-10-30)

What is surge pricing?
Media headlines about electricity surge pricing have suggested something bad is going on - it is not. When the media use the emotive term surge pricing they are referring to the facility to price different time bands at different prices. This has been going on for decades, Economy 7 is an example.
This does not mean it will cost people more as, firstly you would have to agree to be on such a tariff, and secondly if you do not change your pattern of use it is likely to cost you the same as a simple tariff. The advantage is that if you reduce your demand at the times of high prices you will save money.
Smart meters make it easier to provide time banded rates as they can provide time bands at 30 minute intervals if required. (Updated: 2022-04-18)

Should I buy an Energy Saving Devices?
Over the last few years, we have seen plug in Energy Saving Devices advertised offering to immediately shave 90% off your bill. Do not buy these they are a scam. In fact worse than this most are dangerous and could cause fires or electric shocks. (Updated: 2022-06-24)

Will my meters have to be changed if I change supplier?
There are a number of meter standards out there currently, only the latest SMETS2 standard is fully interoperable, meaning only SMETS2 are supported by all suppliers and allow customers to switch without losing any services or requiring any equipment changes. SMETS2 meters are now being installed in large volumes.
SMETS1 meters usually require replacing when you change supplier to retain a smart service. However, due to the large volume of SMETS1 meters, there is now an agreement to allow SMETS1 meters to be upgraded and enrolled into the new DCC systems and thus allow smooth switching for customers. See our SMETS 1 Meter page for a list of SMETS1 meter types that can be upgraded. (Updated: 2019-10-21)

What is credit and prepayment mode?
Credit mode is where you pay for energy though a paying a amount of money regularly, usually a fixed amount. If your energy consumption goes above what you have paid for the supplier will allow you to re-pay over a period thereby offering you credit.
Prepayment is when you pay in advance for your energy buy charging a key or putting coins in a meter. The new smart meters will allow you to pay through the internet. (Updated: 2017-09-11)

Are SMETS2 meters compatible with storage heaters?
Yes. A fifth meter output is required to control the storage radiator load - 5 terminal meters are now available from most suppliers. (Updated: 2021-02-12)

What is a cut-out?
A cut-out is a piece of electrical equipment that forms the link between your DNO's (Distribution Network Operator) electricity cable and the internal wires in your property. It contains a large sealed fuse that can only be replaced by the DNO. Certain older cut-outs are inadequate and will need to be upgraded by the DNO as part of your Smart Meter installation. See this document for the various types of cut-out. (Updated: 2021-04-25)

If my electricity and gas is with different suppliers, what happens?
If your electricity and gas is with different suppliers, each supplier will contact you to make an appointment to install a smart meter for the fuel they supply to you. SMETS2 equipment has been designed to a particular standard so that all the meters and In Home Displays can talk together, this way you only need one In Home Display which will normally be supplied by the first supplier who installs a smart meter in your home. However, the earlier SMETS1 standard did not always interoperate unless the meters were on the same system, and even then support for interoperability by suppliers was poor. (Updated: 2019-10-21)

I have a SMETS2 meter. Will it work after switching suppliers?
If you have a SMETS2 (Smart Meter Equipment Technical Specifications) meter it has to be commissioned through DCC which is a common service used by all suppliers. Therefore you are safe to switch as your meter will continue to work with your new supplier. SMETS1 meters often use different support systems across different suppliers and therefore fail to work after switching suppliers. (Updated: 2020-01-07)

How do I top-up my smart meter PAYG if the mobile network is down?
Normally your PAYG (Pay As You Go) top-up will be sent automatically to the smart meter, however, if the communications link through the mobile network is not available then this cannot happen.
Firstly you can use the emergency credit that most suppliers offer. If that runs out you can enter the long authorisation number that you received when you paid for the credit into the meter or IHD (In Home Display) to apply your credit. This very difficult to do on the meter so use the IHD if you can. (Updated: 2019-10-21)

How much data is stored on a Smart Meter?
The SMETS2 specification requires the following data to be recorded and stored.
Half-hourly electricity data:
  • 13 months of consumption (Active Energy Import)
  • 3 months of active energy exported
  • 3 months of reactive energy imported
  • 3 months of reactive energy exported.
Gas data:
  • 3 months of half-hourly consumption
  • 13 months of monthly consumption.
(Updated: 2020-11-07)

Why does my IHD show CO2?
The measure of CO2 on your IHD (In Home Display) shows the amount of CO2 given off by power stations generating the electricity you are using. The calculation is set by Ofgem based on the average amount of carbon dioxide emitted for every kWh of energy generated. The average is for the fuel mix across entire UK energy industry, so may be misleading if you have opted for a CO2 free source such as Wind or Nuclear. (Updated: 2018-06-03)

Why are smart meters controversial?
Whilst earlier conversations about smart meters focused on safety (which you can read more about in Campaigns Against), more recent criticisms have sprung from how the government and suppliers are handling the roll-out. From cost to customer communication, the plan to get a smart meter into every home by 2024 has been a bumpy ride so far. In early 2014, EDF Energy, ScottishPower and npower called for a review of the roll-out, stating the cost to customers would be £1.8 billion. This, they said, was due to the "ambitious" deadline of every household in four years and the cost of the In Home Displays. The cost is ultimately paid by customers through measures on their energy bills. Instead, suppliers proposed, customers could link up their smart meter to their smartphone or tablet to save cost. In 2013, independent research commissioned by uSwitch found that 55% of us were "in the dark" about smart meters. That meant households did not understand what smart meters did and how they could benefit them. However, later studies of those with actual smart meters in their homes enjoyed more accurate billing and were more satisfied with their providers. (Updated: 2019-12-22)

Will a smart meter save me money?
A smart meter itself won't save you money, but the In Home Display (IHD) your smart meter comes with can offer much insight into how to lower your bills. Your IHD lets you see how much energy you are using at different times of the day, week, month or year, which should help you cut your energy usage and your bills by highlighting ways you can be more energy efficient.
The Centre for Sustainable Energy has advice on Smart Meters and other ways to save money on energy.
Also over time the technology will lead to the creation of innovative new tariffs and personalised plans individually tailored to fit your lifestyle and energy consumption. (Updated: 2019-10-21)

When will I get a smart meter?
Each supplier started installing high volumes of SMETS1 Smart Meters in 2017, and started on SMETS2 meters in 2018. They are keen to install as many as they can to meet government targets. Whether they can install at your particular address is mainly governed by the signal availability on the new SMETS2 DCC Network; there was 97% coverage by the end of 2018 and 99.25% by the end of 2020.
Contact your supplier if you would like a smart meter installed, however, it is up to you if you want a smart meter as they are not compulsory unless your old meter has failed or reached the end of its certified life. (Updated: 2022-03-31)

I live in a block of flats. When will I get a Smart Meter?
Large blocks of flats, say over 20 homes, can have technical problems connecting the Smart Meter to the In Home Display, as the meters are often in a common area at some distance from the room where the In Home Display will be located. The roll-out to these properties will be in 2021 when technical solutions have been investigated and commissioned by a new company set up specifically to find solutions, the Alt HAN Co Ltd.
Small blocks of flats are being treated the same as other smaller properties during the national roll-out. (Updated: 2020-02-05)

Is MPAN the same as meter serial number?
They are different.
The Meter Point Administration Number (MPAN) is a 21-digit number that starts with letter S and is used to identify your individual electricity supply point. The number can be found on your bill. This number will not usually change unless the type of tariff is changed, the premises is demolished or the main cable moved.
The Meter Serial Number is unique to your meter and it appears on your meter and energy bills. This number identifies your meter and so will change when your meter is changed. (Updated: 2021-04-09)

Is MPRN the same as meter serial number?
They are different.
The Meter Point Reference Number (MPRN) is used to identify your individual gas supply point. The number can be found on your bill. This number will not usually change unless the premises is demolished or the gas main moved.
The Meter Serial Number is unique to your meter and it appears on your meter and energy bills. This number identifies your meter and so will change when your meter is changed. (Updated: 2021-04-09)

Can I have a smart meter if I'm a prepayment customer?
Yes. Smart meters work in both credit and prepayment modes. In fact, prepayment customers will have more flexible payment options available to them with smart meters, including remote top-up facilities. (Updated: 2014-12-20)

What is a PPMID?
Customers who opt to pre-pay for their energy should have a fall back means of applying a top up locally to their meter in the event of a temporary loss of WAN communications. This can be most easily achieved with a PPMID (pre-payment meter interface device), which allows the customer to easily enter a purchase reference number. Most suppliers now use IHDs (In Home Displays) with integrated PPMID functionality. (Updated: 2020-02-09)

How much can I save on energy costs every year?
The average household can expect to see savings improve from an additional cost of £11 in 2018 to annual savings of £36 by 2034. (Updated: 2019-12-22)

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